Water Safety and Preventing Waterborne Illnesses: Protecting Ourselves from the Dangers in Our Pipes
Water, the source of life, can sometimes harbor dangers we rarely consider. Waterborne germs, lurking within our plumbing, pose potential threats to our health. Especially in the wake of storms like hurricanes, where infrastructure can be compromised, ensuring safe water usage becomes paramount. But with awareness and simple preventive measures, informed by trusted organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we can ensure safe water usage.
How Germs Thrive in Our Pipes
Waterborne pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and amoebas, can thrive in our pipes, particularly in stagnant water or water with insufficient treatment chemicals like chlorine. These germs often form a biofilm—a slimy substance that helps them adhere to surfaces and shield them from treatment chemicals, allowing them to survive and multiply.
Certain pathogens that can flourish in our home's water system include:
Nontuberculous mycobacteria: Leads to lung, blood, or skin infections.
Legionella spp.: Causes lung infections.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Results in blood, lung, or skin infections.
Naegleria fowleri: Causes brain infections.
Acanthamoeba spp.: Triggers brain and eye infections.
While public water utilities are mandated to provide water meeting specific quality and safety standards, tap water isn't sterile. Even with a properly functioning public water system, environmental germs can be present. Such pathogens can proliferate in home pipes under the right conditions, especially when water remains stagnant.
The Illnesses They Bring
Most are aware of the gastrointestinal problems waterborne germs can induce, such as vomiting or diarrhea. Yet, these pathogens can also lead to lung, brain, eye, or skin diseases. Turning on a water tap, especially after prolonged non-use, can release germs from the biofilm, leading to potential health issues when the water:
Is inhaled as mist.
Contacts an open wound.
Enters the nose.
Rinses or stores contact lenses.
Splashes into eyes while wearing contacts.
Who's at Risk?
While many exposed to these germs remain unaffected, specific groups are more susceptible to infections:
Individuals aged 50 and above.
Current or ex-smokers.
Those with chronic lung ailments.
Immunocompromised individuals due to illnesses like cancer or HIV.
Those with underlying conditions like diabetes.
Infants below six months.
Contact lens users.
Steps for Protection
Protecting ourselves from waterborne germs requires a proactive approach:
Regular Flushing: If a faucet or showerhead hasn't been used recently (for a week or more), flush it before use. This practice can help reduce the risk of waterborne pathogens.
Maintenance of Water Devices: Regular cleaning of all devices using water is essential. Devices include humidifiers, neti pots, showerheads, and water heaters. Proper care prevents the proliferation and spread of germs.
Water Filters: Many household filters aren't designed to remove germs. Ensure regular maintenance and replacement per manufacturer instructions.
Communicate with Your Water Utility: Stay updated on any disruptions or advisories related to your water supply.
Private Water Sources: Homeowners with private water sources, like wells, should follow guidelines to maintain water safety.
Engage with Building Management: Apartment residents should converse with building managers or landlords about measures taken to guard against waterborne germs.
By comprehending the risks and taking appropriate preventative measures, we can shield ourselves from the hidden dangers within our pipes and ensure our water remains a source of health and vitality.
About the Author
This blog post was written by Volcano Consulting, LLC Deputy Public Health Consultant, Liz Ventura. Liz earned her Master of Public Health from the University of South Florida.